In late March, the first signs of a groyper-linked national campus expansion emerged when the University of Maine College Republicans – now officially the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans – released a resolution calling for a national immigration moratorium. The resolution was joined by five additional campus Republican groups as well as the America First Bruins, a group touting itself the “official America First Students club at UCLA.”
The Maine group’s resolution, released March 25, deployed the racist designation “Wuhan virus” as the pre-text for its attack on immigrants. Titled an “Emergency Resolution for Greater Immigration Restrictions” the release declared,
It is uncertain when the Wuhan Virus will be eradicated and we must take every precaution to prevent its spread. The need for secure borders – air, land, and sea – could never be greater to prevent the disease form being reintroduced to our country.
The self-proclaimed “coalition of College Republicans nationwide” declared themselves “united to support a resolution urging President Donald J. Trump to pass an indefinite moratorium on all immigration to the United States of America.” Specifically, the coalition called on the racist president to use “emergency powers” to stop resettlement of unaccompanied minors seeking asylum status, suspend the refugee resettlement program, stop issuing foreign student visas, block “any ‘DACA deal,’ and “finish the southern border wall.” The resolution continued that Trump should “tax all alien workers’ remittances” to families in home countries.
The resolution assailed “globalist threats” and called on the administration to implement a “Buy American, Hire American, and put America First” program to aim for self-sufficiency in pharmaceutical drugs and medical supplies.
That is, the coalition’s attack on immigrants deploys many of the themes used by “groyper” leaders in their effort to push white nationalism among Trump supporters.
In addition to the America First Bruins, and the “Real University of Maine College Republicans,” campus groups endorsing the anti-immigrant screed included the Bruin Republicans at UCLA, Berkeley College Republicans, College Republicans United at Arizona State University, San Diego State University College Republicans, and Hussan University College Republicans.
As if to signal its links to the “groypers,” the University of Maine College Republicans tagged Michelle Malkin in a comment to their Facebook post releasing the resolution. Malkin, a conservative pundit notorious for defending the WWII-era Japanese internment, has emerged as a prominent defender of the white nationalist-led mobilization, even referring to herself as “mommy” to the crowd of “groypers” assembled at the February 2020 America First Political Action conference.
The University of Maine Constitutional Republicans, the Resolution and the “Groypers”
Simply tagging Michelle Malkin on the Facebook release of their resolution does not illustrate the depth of the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans’ relationship to the self-declared “groyper” mommy. Nor does it fully illustrate the ideological and other links between the Maine campus group and the “groyper” mobilization.
The close ties between Malkin and the Maine campus Republicans came into clear relief when the group attempted to sponsor a speaking event for the “groyper” pundit. The event was initially canceled when a local venue learned of Malkin’s controversial connections to organized racism. At least two additional efforts to gain a local speaking platform for Malkin, including one by 2nd Congressional District GOP candidate Adrienne Bennet, were thwarted when the venues learned of Malkin’s background. A faculty advisor for the club would also resign after learning of Malkin’s ties to the “groypers,” and the University spokesperson would make clear that the event was not hosted by the college.
For her part, Malkin bashed those canceling her events and praised the “The #AmericaFirst kids at University of Maine” who “have been under intense fire for the past year.” When the event was finally held, Malkin would credit Waterville, Maine Mayor Isgro and Adrienne Bennett with eventually finding a location at which “200-plus citizens showed up for America First.”
Les Gibson, Chair of the Sabbatus Republican Town Committee, opened the event that was attended by Maine Republican Party Vice-Chair Nick Isgro and University of Maine Constitutional Republicans leaders Charles Honkonen and Jeremiah Childs as well as some 200 nearly all-white audience members. Taking the podium, Jeremiah Childs, Vice-President of the University of Maine student group, would declare that “our group has been under siege from since its inception from the brutal vipers that inhabit my university.” Saying that he had become portrayed as “U Maine’s most notorious white supremacist,” he would assert that “the only crime that I have been guilty of is I will always put America first. This notion of putting God and country first can only be defeated by the indifference of conservatives.”
For her part, Malkin delivered a speech largely focused on assailing immigrants and immigration. The most telling part of her speech, however, came when she stated that she was in part inspired not to retire from her chosen profession when “I saw some of these kids showing up at conservative events.” Stating that it’s not being reported by mainstream or “conservative establishment press,” she lauded these young people as “putting everything on the line.” She would also stress the need support students like Charlie Honkonen and Jeremiah Childs and seek a “takeover of the establishment, open borders, Republican Party.”
Her inspiration of “kids showing up at conservative events” can only refer to the “groyper” mobilization led by white nationalists Nick Fuentes and Patrick Casey – and Malkin makes no distinction between that effort and the need to oppose the Republican Party establishment by supporting students like Childs and Honkonen.
Sponsoring Malkin, however, was not the University of Maine group’s first flirtation with bigoted politics. In October 2019, in defense of a proclamation defending Columbus Day by Waterville, Maine Mayor Nick Isgro, the campus group posted on Facebook,
Thank you, Nick Isgro, for standing up to the Radical Left-Wing agenda that is being pushed by Establishment Republicans in Augusta with the help of the Left. The most successful tactic of Communists is rewriting history and destroying our heritage. WE must not forget the brutal societies that Christopher Columbus and other explorers discovered in America. [capitals in original]
The attack on “Establishment Republicans,” not coincidentally, positions the Maine group similarly to the “groypers” who have consistently railed against “Conservative Inc.” – a term that, we will see below, has been used by the resolution signatories in the San Diego State University College Republicans.
Less than a month after its defense of Columbus Day, the Maine campus group invited Maine State Representative Larry Lockman to speak – a legislator with his own history of far right politicking and bigotry. In 1984, as a member of the Maine Patriots Association, Lockman had declared that the federal government lacked authority to collect an income tax [despite clear 16th Amendment language to the contrary] and expressed admiration for Gordon Kahl. Kahl was a Posse Comitatus figure killed in a 1983 shootout with law officers attempting to enforce a warrant for parole violations. Kahl, who believed that the United States had been “conquered and occupied by the Jews,” had previously shot a wounded federal agent point-blank in the head after an armed confrontation. Kahl’s death became a cause célèbre for white supremacists in the 1980s and 1990s.
In keeping with such affinities, in 1987, Lockman had written of AIDS that “In the overwhelming majority of cases, people are dying because of their addiction to sodomy. They are dying because progressive, enlightened, tolerant people in politics and in medicine have assured the public that the practice of sodomy is a legitimate alternative lifestyle, rather than a perverted and depraved crime against humanity.” Lockman would continue anti-gay politics throughout his political career.
Lockman would also endorse an immigration moratorium akin to both “groyper” and the University of Maine Constitutional Republican goals as well as calling for the suspension of state funding to cities that limit cooperation with the federal government in enforcing immigration policy.
In the wake of the conflict over Malkin’s appearance, the campus group would officially become the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans. Charles “Charlie” Honkonen would serve as President, Jeremiah Childs as Vice President, and Smith Fenner as Treasurer. Biology professor Leonard Kass would become the group’s faculty advisor. A new group separate from the “groyper”-affiliated “Constitutional Republicans” would form under the name University of Maine College Republicans.
As in her January Sabbatus speech, Michelle Malkin would make clear that, at least in her own mind, the Maine campus group’s efforts and those of the “groypers” were part and parcel of the same political project. On January 31, Malkin would offer an “update on the great kids at the University of Maine who are still going through hell over their #AmericaFirst free-thinking,” decrying that “As a result of their activism, which included inviting me to speak & combating a left-wing nut advisor who lost her marbles over Nick Fuentes during the Groyper Wars, the UMaine CRs were de-chartered and are fighting this semester to regain official status.”
Malkin was photographed with the University of Maine College Republicans, including President Charles Honkonen and Vice President Jeremiah Childs, throwing up the “OK” symbol that the Anti-Defamation League has included in its Hate Symbols Database.
U of Maine Constitutional Republican President Charles Honkonen (far left) and Vice President Jeremiah Childs (center in blue checkered shirt) with Michelle Malkin flash the “ok” sign designated a hate symbol by the Anti-Defamation League.
Leaders in the Groyper mobilization took notice. On February 12, white nationalist and “groyper” leader Nick Fuentes would re-post a Michelle Malkin Telegram message that lumped together the causes of the University of Maine group, “groypers,” and America First Student founder Jaden McNeil. Malkin would declare “We will keep multiplying. #America First”:
Just finished speaking to nearly 500 conservatives at Liberty Forum of Silicon Valley in Mountain View about the existential dangers and damage of mass migration. They DID NOT CARE about the ConInc disavowal & de-platforming campaign. They forged ahead with my #openbordersinc talk even after seeing what the gatekeepers tried to do in Maine, where organizers beat back FOUR cancellations in defiance of the Left/Right smear machine—and even after the new barrage of smears this week. I talked to Google insiders, conservative musicians from the San Francisco Symphony, American tech workers fighting H-1B tech tyranny, and high school-age groypers and their parents who were outraged at the Kansas City Star attack on Jaden McNeil today! Guess what, ConInc & SorosWorld: There are more than “20” of us. Keep lying and crying. We will keep multiplying. #AmericaFirst
American First Students leader Jaden McNeil would post both of the above Michelle Malkin Telegram Posts. Also on March 25, Jaden McNeil would quote the resolution and tweet about “A powerful resolution from a coalition of CR [College Republican] groups calling for President Trump to implement an America first platform.” McNeil’s tweet included a link to the Twitter page of the America First Bruins.
Also on March 25, Jaden McNeil would retweet an article from National File about the resolution describing that “A growing coalition of college Republicans are pushing for an immigration moratorium, especially during the coronavirus pandemic.”
In the article, National File described the anti-immigrant resolution, praised Michelle Malkin, interviewed both University of Maine’s Jeremiah Childs and a representative of the America First Bruins, and drew a conclusion directly linking the emergence of this “America First” effort to the rise of the “groypers”:
America First students have grown increasingly dissatisfied with the establishment GOP’s perceived prioritization of corporate interests and indifference to more traditional conservative issues over the past several years, a rift which ultimately culminated in 2019’s ‘Groyper Wars.’
And National File would know. On February 26, in the lead up the “groyper’s” American First Political Action Conference, the Wichita-based online magazine had promoted an event featuring white nationalist and “gropyer” leader Nick Fuentes, anti-Semitic conspiracy theorist Alex Jones and Proud Boys founder Gavin McInnes.
On March 25 the America First Students would retweet a message from Malkin lauding that a “New alliance of nationalist College Republicans calls for immediate immigration moratorium to protect safety, security & economic well-being of #AmericaFirst!” The group would also retweet Jaden McNeil’s tweet about the “coalition of CR groups” along with an article by Red Elephants about the campus coalition and the resolution. Red Elephants is the online magazine run by early “groyper” activists Vincent James.
In addition to decrying demographic change that has followed the 1965 Immigration Act, the Red Elephants wrote that “The action [the anti-immigrant resolution] was also endorsed by Jaden McNeil, president of America First Students at Kansas State University.”
The Gateway Pundit would also report McNeil’s support for the resolution and quote America First Bruins President Christian Secor as stating that, “due to the coronavirus epidemic, our coalition of young students have come together to ask for President Trump to keep true to his word of America First and close the borders.”
The Gateway Pundit article was written by Cassandra Fairbanks, an attendee at both the National File event featuring white nationalist Nick Fuentes and the “groyper”-hosted America First Political Action Conference in February in Washington D.C. Fairbanks would write of her experience that,
The national file parties and AFPAC were some of the best political events I’ve ever been to. Everyone did such a great job putting them together…These events were what things would be like if we stopped caving in to cancel culture nonsense. More of this please.
From Left to Right: Unknown, America First Students founder Jaden McNeil, Cassandra Fairbanks, Michelle Malkin, white nationalist Nick Fuentes and Steven Franssen.
“Groyper” activists recirculating Malkin’s posts about the University of Maine College Republicans would include Vincent James, American Identity Movement leader Patrick Casey, and Steven Franssen.
University of Maine College Republicans returned the admiration, posting a YouTube video featuring Michelle Malkin and “groyper” activist Vincent James as well as a meme by the Columbia Bugle blog, an early and active participant in the “groyper” mobilization. On March 12, Malkin wrote that the Maine campus group had gotten flack for “posting a Facebook poll asking members if they sided with Charlie Kirk or Nick Fuentes.”
And More from the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans
In addition to inviting both Michelle Malkin and Larry Lockman to speak, promoting a national immigration moratorium, and re-posting a video featuring “groyper” Vincent James, the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans would signal its affinity for far-right politics in Facebook posts. While the group spends much of its Facebook time defending President Donald Trump, and stressing the Chinese origins of the virus., in an April 2 post the group advertised its attraction to armed militias:
When members of the Maine group attended the February 2020 Conservative Political Action Conference (CPAC), the group announced that they would be “hanging out with our great friend Michelle Malkin” – the same weekend she would keynote AFPAC. While at CPAC, Maine activists took the opportunity to be photographed with Infowars head and anti-Semitic conspiracy “theorist” Alex Jones, mugged with Infowars, and joined Proud Boys founder Gavin McInnes photo op.
University of Maine Constitutional Republicans Vice-President Jeremiah Childers Poses with Anti-Semitic Conspiracy Theorist Alex Jones
U of Mainers Mug with Infowars
University of Mainers and Proud Boys Founder Gavin McInnes
Cut from the Same Cloth: The Campus Organizations Joining the Anti-Immigrant Resolution
While it could be argued that the College Republican groups joining the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans-led resolution were not part of the same “groyper”-linked movement, a cursory look shows this to be false. As this quick glance shows, these groups have spewed “groyper”-like bigotry, politically positioned themselves similarly to the “groypers,” have been promoted and defended by active “groypers,” and, at times, have directly promoted and interacted with “groyper” activists – something we have already seen above.
After criticism from campus supporters of Bernie Sanders for supporting the University of Maine groups’ attack on immigrants, the Bruin Republicans at UCLA stressed that they “are a separate organization and are not affiliated with America First Bruins.” However, the group doubled-down on the resolutions use of the racist term “Wuhan” to name the coronavirus, declared that “We will not retract our resolution,” and emphasized that “We identity with the slogan ‘America First’ as it has been expressed by President Trump.” In November 2019, the Bruin Republicans had announced an event featuring Michelle Malkin titled “Fixing America’s Broken Immigration System.”
The Berkeley College Republicans have illustrated a willingness to host bigoted speakers, boasting that in 2017 that “our group attempted to host well-known commentator Milo Yiannopoulos.” Yiannopoulos is a notorious anti-Muslim bigot and crass misogynist who at one time served as Breitbart News’ principal defender of the white nationalists of the so-called “alt-right.” Yiannopoulos has also emerged as a fellow traveler of the “groypers.” White nationalist Nick Fuentes, pictured below with Yiannopoulos (left), frequently recirculates posts by the far-right figure.
The College Republicans United at Arizona State University (CRU) came into being in 2018 after splits in the campus-based College Republicans at Arizona State. The group described splits between “various sects” including “Neocon Establishment,” a “Libertarian group behind Ron Paul,” “Lolbertarians with Gary Johnson,” and the “Populist, Paleocon, Constitutionalists behind Pat Buchanan, Donald Trump.”
Making clear where they see themselves in this spectrum, Republicans United wrote that “Although CRU identifies with the MAGA agenda, we open our doors to Libertarians and Democrats to debate our members during meetings.”
Recall, as IREHR reported earlier in the year, that leading “groypers” and white nationalists such as Nick Fuentes and Patrick Casey of the American Identity Movement have been inspired by paleoconservatives; that Patrick Casey brands his white nationalist American Identity Movement as “populist;” and that Nick Fuentes dubbed himself a “constitutionalist” before “I came around to Donald Trump, became much more nationalistic, paleoconservative, closer to where I am now.”
That is, the College Republicans United at Arizona State University have staked out that place in politics also occupied by the “groypers.” As such, announcing its support for the University of Maine-led resolution, the group declared that “We will no longer surrender this country or its people to the false song of globalism.” And Republicans United announcement included a tweet from Michelle Malkin declaring, “AMEN AMEN AMEN: New Alliance of nationalist College Republicans calls for an immediate immigration moratorium.”
In February, the group had announced a speaking event by Michelle Malkin, casting her appearance in the same terms as the “groypers”– as an “ideological battle” over whether the “Republican Party [will] represent grassroots constitutionalists or continue on the Neoconservative establishment way.”
In addition to Malkin, the group announced that it was hosting a March 4 speaking event featuring Mike Cernovich, the crass misogynist who once tweeted that “diversity is code for white genocide,” according to the Southern Poverty Law Center. The spurious idea of “white genocide” is a common refrain among white nationalists. In January, Republicans United had played host to former Maricopa County, Arizona Sheriff Joe Arpaio, the anti-immigrant law officer convicted in 2017 of criminal contempt of court for refusing to stop his department’s practice of racially profiling Latinos.
The San Diego State College Republicans have also flagged a politics compatible with the “groyper” mobilization, going even further by reposting material from the white nationalist group VDARE, as reported in The Daily Aztec and by Abner Hauge at the Left Coast Right Watch. The group had also announced plans in October 2019 to play host to anti-Muslim bigot Milo Yiannopoulos, according to The Daily Aztec.
Befitting such practices, on February 16 the San Diego State College Republicans posted an announcement for the America First Political Action Committee – the event hosted February 28 by white nationalists and “groyper” leaders Nick Fuentes and Patrick Casey.
About a week earlier the group had posted a remembrance of British Conservative Party leader Enoch Powell and his infamous 1968 “Rivers of Blood” speech, described by the campus San Diego State group as a “speech [that] will forever be remembered as a somber premonition of the future in store for a declining British empire ravaged by mass immigration.” A racist screed against the 1968 Race Relations Bill – making it illegal to discriminate in housing, reemployment and government services – Powell offered a Conservative Association audience an image of an immigrant takeover and impending violence if the removal of immigrants from Britain did not occur:
Now we are seeing the growth of positive forces acting against integration, of vested interests in the preservation and sharpening of racial and religious differences, with a view to the exercise of actual domination, first over fellow-immigrants and then over the rest of the population… For these dangerous and divisive elements, the legislation proposed in the Race Relations Bill is the very pabulum they need to flourish. Here is the means of showing that the immigrant communities can organise to consolidate their members, to agitate and campaign against their fellow citizens, and to overawe and dominate the rest with the legal weapons which the ignorant and the ill-informed have provided. As I look ahead, I am filled with foreboding; like the Roman, I seem to see ‘the River Tiber foaming with much blood.’
On November 19, 2019, the group announced that “the College Republicans at SDSU #StandWithMalkin in the wake of her firing by YAF.” They continued that
It is a travesty for free political speech in this country when supposedly conservative torchbearers on campus like TPUSA and YAF use the same pejorative language of Leftist attack dogs like the SPLC and the ADL to shut down political speech that America Last Conservatives like Charlie Kirk and Ben Shapiro disagree with. The immigration debate is KEY to the future of our country as republican heartlands like Texas and Georgia turn blue purely due to Leftist importation of voters through both legal and illegal means. The GOP does not have to be the party of unlimited legal immigration, which is just as hurtful to this country as illegal line-jumping. America First Campus Conservatives do not deserve to be smeared with baseless accusations of racism and antisemitism for being skeptical of Conservative Inc’s America Last positions on immigration in particular.
The group’s promotion of AFPAC and Michelle Malkin, promotion of Enoch Powell-style racism and the nature of its “StandWithMalkin” statement directly align the San Diego State group with the political trajectory of the “groypers” – who at the time were busy building momentum in their campus confrontations with TPUSA and YAF. “Conservative Inc.,” recall, is also the same name for mainstream conservatives used by the “groypers” and their paleoconservative predecessors.
In response to criticism for its Facebook post, the group continued that, “As soon as they’re [TPUSA and YAF] faced with immigration skeptics, they immediately retreat to SPLC-style tactics of accusations of white nationalism, white supremacy, anti-semitism, and holocaust denial.” In response to a question as to whether they “Would you defend Fuentes then?,” the San Diego State group responded that “I’m not going to speak for Fuentes,” but that “None of the students asking these questions [to TPUSA speakers] deserve to be smeared as white nationalists or anti-semites because they dare to deviate from the banality that is Reaganite conservativism currently holding our party captive.”
The problem with such as response, however, is that the “groyper” mobilization, of which Michelle Malkin was an important part, was being organized on Telegram by white nationalists such as Nick Fuentes and American Identity Movement leader Patrick Casey, a fact well documented by IREHR.
As if to drive this point home, the San Diego State group continued that, 
The concern about a “cosmopolitan shopping mall,” the “utterly unrecognizable” American social order and the “discord inflicted on this country since 1965” could have been uttered by Nick Fuentes or Patrick Case – the year 1965 a reference to the year in which the Immigration and Naturalization Act overturned the racist 1924 National Origins Act that had explicitly favored white, Northern Europeans in immigration policy.
The mobilization initiated by the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans, and supported by seven additional campus groups is rooted in politics of the “groyper” mobilization. Leading with an immigration moratorium, a key “groyper” issue, it has been closely aligned with “groyper” figure Michelle Malkin from the start; been endorsed by America First Students founder and “groyper” figure Jaden McNeil; had its activities amplified online by “groyper” activists; been written about favorably by AFPAC attendee Cassandra Fairbanks; and, last but certainly not least, been taken up by campus groups that have promoted racism and positioned themselves politically against the GOP establishment in a manner remarkably similar to the “groypers.”
We are now entering the next phase of “groyper” activism, activism with roots in white nationalist mainstreaming.
We should take heed and act accordingly.
 While the group continued to use the name University of Maine College Republicans on Facebook, by February 6, 2020 the group’s official name had become the University of Maine Constitutional Republicans. See University of Maine Student Government, Inc. Organization Information. University of Maine Constitutional Republicans. February 6, 2020. https://umaine.edu/umsg/organization/university-of-maine-constitutional-republicans/
 UMaine College Republicans. Emergency Resolution for Greater Immigration Restrictions. Facebook. March 25, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/pcb.2607648752677024/2607648572677042/?; https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/pcb.2607648752677024/2607648622677037/?
 UMaine College Republicans. Facebook. March 25, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/posts/2607648752677024?
 Malkin, Michelle. America First Political Action Conference speech. February 28, 2020. https://dlive.tv/p/dlive-93233454+Pb15eDlZg
 Pendharkar, Eesha. Controversial speaker’s cancellation shows UMaine GOP club’s growing tension with university. Bangor Daily News. January 17, 2020. https://bangordailynews.com/2020/01/17/news/bangor/controversial-speakers-cancellation-shows-umaine-gop-clubs-growing-tension-with-university/
 Adrienne Bennett for Congress. Facebook. January 17, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/AdrienneBennettMaine/videos/107343660701011/?
 UMaine College Republicans. Facebook. October 4, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/posts/2244313192343917
 Pendharkar, Eesha, op cit.
O’Connor, Joe. Income Tax Voluntary. Lewiston Daily Sun. March 26, 1984. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1928&dat=19840326&id=sNhGAAAAIBAJ&sjid=1vMMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1380,4171859. For more on Gordon Kahl and his place in the white supremacist movement, see Corcoran, James. 1990. Bitter Harvest: Gordon Kahl and the Posse Comitatus, Murder in the Heartland. New York: Viking Penguin; and Zeskind, Leonard. 2009. Blood and Politics: The History of the White Nationalist Movement from the Margins to the Mainstream. New York: Farrar, Strauss, Giroux.
 Lockman, Lawrence E. Letter to Editor. Lewiston Daily Sun. July 23, 1987. https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1928&dat=19870723&id=-l4gAAAAIBAJ&sjid=YGUFAAAAIBAJ&pg=2915,4250285
 Tipping, Mike. Maine Rep. Lawrence Lockman’s decades-long history of extremism. Bangor Daily News. February 25, 2014. http://thetippingpoint.bangordailynews.com/2014/02/25/state-politics/maine-rep-lawrence-lockmans-deacades-long-history-of-extremism/?_ga=2.87143896.1339711113.1586463765-1770073084.1586463762
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 Malkin, Michelle. Telegram. January 31, 2020. https://t.me/MichelleMalkin/392?single
 Anti-Defamation League. “OK” and Other Alt Right Memes and Slogans Added to ADL’s Hate Symbols Database. September 26, 2019. https://www.adl.org/news/press-releases/ok-and-other-alt-right-memes-and-slogans-added-to-adls-hate-symbols-database
 Fuentes, Nick. Telegram. February 12, 2020. https://t.me/nickjfuentes1/2412
 McNeil, Jaden. Twitter. March 25, 2020. https://twitter.com/McNeilJaden/status/1243008039571075075
 McNeil, Jaden. Twitter. March 25, 2020. ; National File. Twitter. March 25, 2020. https://twitter.com/NationalFile/status/1242955551706939393
 Keane, Gabriel. Alliance of College Republicans Calls for Immediate America First Immigration Moratorium. National File. March 25, 2020. https://nationalfile.com/alliance-of-college-republicans-calls-for-immediate-america-first-immigration-moratorium/
 Red Elephants. Republican Group Calls on Trump to Institute IMMEDIATE Immigration Moratorium to Offset Economic Impact of Coronavirus. Red Elephants. March 25, 2020. http://theredelephants.com/republican-group-calls-on-trump-to-institute-immediate-immigration-moratorium-to-offset-economic-impact-of-the-global-pandemic/
 Fairbanks, Cassandra. College Republicans Release Emergency Resolution Calling for ‘Immediate and Indefinite Immigration Moratorium’ Amid Coronavirus Pandemic. The Gateway Pundit. March 26, 2020. https://www.thegatewaypundit.com/2020/03/college-republicans-release-emergency-resolution-calling-for-immediate-and-indefinite-immigration-moratorium-amid-coronavirus-pandemic/
 Fairbanks, Cassandra. Telegram. March 1, 2020. https://t.me/CassandraFairbanks/151
 UMaine College Republicans. Facebook. February 23, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/a.723269751114943/2543134542461779/?
 UMaine College Republicans. April 2, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/a.723269751114943/2623873474387885/?
 UMaine College Republicans. Facebook. February 24, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/a.723269751114943/2545199395588627/?
 UMaine College Republicans. Facebook. February 27, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/pcb.2551838241591409/2551837624924804/?type=3&theater; https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/pcb.2552078378234062/2552077908234109/?type=3&theater; UMaine College Republicans. Facebook. February 26, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/UMaineCR/photos/a.699230200185565/2549892395119327/?
 Bruin Republicans at UCLA. Facebook. April 2, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/BruinRepublicans/posts/1402508346603329?
 Bruin Republicans at UCLA. Facebook. November 11, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/BruinRepublicans/posts/1276090142578484?
 Berkeley College Republicans. About US. https://www.berkeleycollegerepublicans.com/who-we-are. Accessed April 13, 2020.
 Republicans United. Facebook. Story of Republicans United. April 7, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/pg/RepublicansUnited/about/?ref=page_internal.
 Republicans United. Facebook. March 25, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/RepublicansUnited/posts/3123980810969844?
 Malkin, Michelle. Twitter. March 25, 2020. https://twitter.com/michellemalkin/status/1242910252837683200
 Republicans United. Facebook. February 25, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/RepublicansUnited/photos/a.2069556719745597/3054726127895313/?
 Republicans United. Facebook. February 9, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/events/186790946013267/?; See Southern Poverty Law Center. Mike Cernovich. https://www.splcenter.org/fighting-hate/extremist-files/individual/mike-cernovich
 Republicans United. Facebook. January 30, 2010. https://www.facebook.com/RepublicansUnited/posts/2996777653690161?; see Associated Press in Phoenix. Sheriff Joe Arapaio guilty of contempt for ignoring order to stop racial profiling. The Guardian. July 31, 2017. https://www.theguardian.com/us-news/2017/jul/31/joe-arpaio-convicted-contempt-immigration-patrols
 Ross, Bell and Brendan Tuccinard. College Republicans lean into right-wing rebrand in return to campus. The Daily Aztec. October 30, 2019. https://thedailyaztec.com/96610/news/college-republicans-lean-into-right-wing-rebrand-in-return-to-campus/;
 San Diego State College Republicans. Facebook. February 16, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/sdsucollegerepublicans/posts/2401819766797060?
 San Diego State College Republicans. Facebook. February 8, 2020. https://www.facebook.com/sdsucollegerepublicans/photos/a.1445710059074707/2394625460849824/?
 Enoch Powell’s “Rivers of Blood Speech”. https://anth1001.files.wordpress.com/2014/04/enoch-powell_speech.pdf
 San Diego State College Republicans. Facebook. November 19, 2019. https://www.facebook.com/sdsucollegerepublicans/posts/2317946148517756?